Probably, not many have heard of such a type of apple as column-shaped? They first appeared about half a century ago due to an unusual mutation, the consequence of which was the amazing formation of the vertical crown of an apple tree.
Their distinguishing feature is that such apple trees have only one trunk, from which absolutely small twigs do not need pruning, which makes them an ideal fruit tree for a small garden. Having planted such an apple tree on your plot, you will not once again hear in your address surprise and admiration for this beauty.
Like our usual apple trees, these beauties are divided into 3 types - summer, autumn and winter. Summer varieties include Vasyugan and Dialogue, autumn President and Arbat, and winter varieties Currency, Moscow Necklace, etc. Also, these apple trees are dwarf, semi-dwarf and vigorous. Now, when we met, we consider them in more detail.
- Variety "Vasyugan"
- Sort "Dialogue"
- Variety "President"
- Sort "Currency"
The sweet and sour fruits of this summer apple tree are ready to be harvested at the end of August and have a stunning dessert flavor.Their pulp is creamy, very juicy, with small grains. The skin is dense and thin, red in color with a beautiful striped pattern and a bright, yellow-green flank. The apples are considered large, their weight sometimes reaches 200g. With proper collection and storage - the fruits do not lose their properties up to 30 days.
Tree It has excellent frost resistance, which is great for planting in the coldest regions of the country. With proper care begins to bear fruit from the first year after planting, which classifies this variety to skoroplodnymi. According to the classification, Vasyugan is a semi-dwarf tree that grows no higher than 3 meters. Like the other columnar apple trees, Vasyugan has one trunk, on which a large number of annuli are located. Crown very thick, small and neat.
Huge plus This variety is a terrific winter hardiness. These apple trees winter well even at a temperature of -42 ° C, which makes them suitable for planting in the Urals and the Far East. The skoroplodny and high-yielding grade, is well steady against such disease as a scab. These overseas beauties will surprise you with the harvest for 1-3 years, which sometimes exceeds 5 times (when calculating the garden area) harvest from the usual, all the usual apple trees.
The only problem This variety is that the collected apples are not stored for long, just up to 30 days.
With proper care, namely, regular watering, fertilizing the soil, protection from diseases and all sorts of pests - these apple trees will delight you with a terrific harvest. If during the harsh winter the top of this apple has frozen slightly, then the development of two or more trunks is possible. In this case, the main trunk must be cut, and leave only one, the most powerful escape.
Due to the small size, for such apples can be disastrous defeat scab or other pests. Therefore, protection from diseases and insects should be in the foreground.
Trim such apple trees are not necessary. They require only the removal of lateral shoots in the spring. To increase the fruiting, you can slightly trim their top.
Process fertilizers must be constantly observed, starting with the landing. Up to 4 kg of humus mixed with the top layer of earth are covered in the landing pit. As soon as the leaves began to bloom, the tree should be poured with a solution of urea (at least 2 liters per tree), then, at intervals of 2 weeks, this procedure is repeated twice more.
At the height of summer, the apple tree needs potassium-phosphorus top dressing. After that, feeding is carried out 2 more times during the summer. Since these apple trees are not branched, all the useful substances extracted from the earth go to the quantity and quality of the crop, and not to the formation of the bark.
Water columnar apple trees should be drip showers, so as not to erode the soil around the root system, in the summer at least 2 times a week. If it is not possible to establish such watering, then the near-stem circle should be mulched with straw, which will prevent the root system from being exposed. In the autumn, the straw must be removed so that it does not attract various pests.
Pristvolny circle necessarily densely mulched with straw, spruce branches or a good snow drift. It is necessary to wrap a very delicate trunk with several layers of newspapers, and cover the top with old cloth and plastic bags, in order to avoid freezing. To a strong blizzard does not damage the trunk - the tree strengthened support.
Do not forget that the care of such apple trees begins from the moment of planting. It is better to choose time either in early spring or late autumn, but in the presence of warm weather. The site should be distinguished by good illumination and loose earth. Strong gusts of wind are undesirable, and the location of groundwater should be at least 1m.
The distance between seedlings of 40 cm must be observed, as well as the distance between the rows of trees - 1.5 m. For planting is best suited annual trees. The pit for the seedling is dug in about 70 cm in diameter, half a meter deep and filled with fertilizers mixed with the top layer of earth. When planting, the grafting site on the tree should not be covered with earth.
Fruit This apple tree is early summer. They will please us with its bright yellow color and sweet juicy taste in late July. The size of the apples are small, have an amazing flat shape. By the shelf life they are not very good. As well as "Vasyugan" all the harvest must be used within 30 days.
Trees this variety is also frost resistant. In size they are average.With good care, bear fruit from the first year after planting. But in most cases in the second year. Productivity is good every year for 15 years. After the expiration of this period, the tree must be replaced. Due to high and early yields - these apple trees quickly grow old.
Merits This variety is a high immune protection against various diseases and good frost resistance, early yield and early fruitfulness.
Disadvantage It consists only in a small period of storage of the harvested crop and the high price of seedlings of all columnar apple trees.
When leaving for such apple trees one should not forget about the close proximity of the root system to the surface of the earth. What completely excludes not only digging and loosening the near-barrel circle, but even trampling.
The roots of our apple trees are very delicate, so the soil around the tree is either planted with spicy herbs (mint, lemon balm, dill, parsley), or with cereals that need to be carefully cut. It is also possible to just make the okolostvolny circle with straw.
As with other columnar apple trees, with proper growth and care, Dialog does not need pruning branches.If the central branch grows poorly, it is necessary to pinch it (up to 2-3 buds). In order to properly form a tree trunk in the first year after planting, the lateral branch of 2 buds is cut in early spring.
During the summer of these buds are already formed 2 strong escape. The following spring, the closest shoots to the horizontal are not touched, and the second is also cut into 2 buds. On the second summer from planting, there will already be fruits on the first intact runaway, and on the second - two side branches. In the third spring, the fruitful twig is pruned, and from the second branch they are received just as in the previous year from the first.
As fertilizer it is best to use organic matter - fermented chicken manure or cow manure diluted with water. During the growing season, the apple tree needs feeding at least 3 times, it is best to use urea for this purpose. We should not forget that these "babies" give a very good harvest, despite their small branching. Therefore, fertilizing fertilizer must be solid, otherwise the tree will not bear fruit.
This sort of apple trees should not just regularly water - they need frequent drip "soul."This bathing helps to protect the tree from pests, as well as saturate the soil with additional moisture and air. Watering the tree under the roots is strictly prohibited, it will destroy the unprotected root system.
When preparing for winter, it is necessary to thoroughly protect the tree. Since This type of apple has a very delicate wood. For such purposes, suitable old rags, plastic bags, newspapers, sawdust and spruce branches, as well as large drifts of snow.
Fruit This apple tree is now rapidly gaining popularity. Their flesh is distinguished by a bright stunning aroma and whiteness, and a sweet-sour, dessert, juicy taste has already gained quite a large number of admirers. The size of apples is quite large, they grow up to 250g. The color is light yellow, shape - repovidnaya.
Trees this species can be attributed to the semi-dwarf. Their maximum height reaches 3 meters. They have very strong roots, so they take root well in the new place. Fruits annually.The first harvest you will collect next year.
The main advantages is that the apple tree "President" is quite cold-resistant and has good immunity to various diseases, which makes it very popular. A strong root system and a fairly good yield are also indisputable advantages.
The only downside is short-term storage of the crop after assembly. This simply should not be forgotten, and tightened with the use of the collected fruits for 30 days.
In care This apple tree is no different from its girlfriends. She also likes frequent drip irrigation, fertilizing the soil at least 3 times over the summer, removing one of the side shoots in the second and third year after planting, as well as protection from frost and all kinds of pests. This sort of apple tree very often, begins to bear fruit by the first year, which can weaken it.
Therefore, the features of care for such trees is the rationing of the crop. That is, in the first year of flowering, all the buds are removed, in the second - up to 5 fruits are left, in the third and subsequent years, the yield is increased by another 5 apples. This will prolong the yield of the apple tree, and will not allow it to grow old so quickly.
Pruning such an apple tree will be carried out only as a result of the death of the apical bud.If for apple-tree was carried out proper care - pruning is not necessary.
Feed fertilizer must begin with the last numbers of May. In the first year, 12-15 kg of manure or chicken droppings are fertilized with soil, 120g of superphosphate and 40g of potassium chloride. Urea for spraying will need up to 30g.
By the 12th year of life, the plant will need up to 80kg of compost, 750g of superphosphate and 240g of potassium chloride, and urea - about 180g. It is necessary to remember why these apple trees need such intensive feeding - with such a small amount - they give a fairly good and fast harvest.
For the same reason, they need regular and frequent watering. Their surface root system is not able to extract moisture deep from the soil. A tender foliage and bark are very afraid of pests and the dispute of various diseases. Therefore, 2-3 times a week the apple tree should hold a shower.
Despite the fact that the apple-tree "President" is cold-resistant enough - it should not be left alone with frost unprepared. The trunk is enveloped in plastic bags or rags, the apical kidney is necessarily covered. Pristvolny circle is closed with a thick layer of earth and snow.
When choosing a site for planting, you should know that this particular apple tree loves the sun very much. Therefore, the site must be chosen well lit.
Glossy fruit This variety has a bright yellow color with red barrels. They grow quite large, up to 200g, round shape. The snow-white flesh is very juicy, aromatic and sweet. In overripe apples there is a slight sourness. Since This variety belongs to the winter - we can collect the fruits only in the first half of October.
With proper harvesting and storage conditions, you can feast on these apples all winter. It should be noted that ripe fruits can hang on the apple tree for a long time without falling off, which also increases their shelf life after harvest.
Trees can be attributed to the semi-dwarf and even dwarf, because their maximum height is only 2.5 meters. These apple trees compare favorably with their counterparts. Thanks to gene technology, they are absolutely not afraid of such a disease as a scab. Therefore, these trees do not need chemical treatment of pests and diseases.Their foliage is always very beautiful, healthy, bright green, until late autumn.
And even fallen leaves retain their green color. Apple trees begin to bear fruit from the first year after planting. But a good level of productivity is reached by the fourth year. Yield is maintained for 15 years.
Merits This type of apple tree has a lot of:
- remarkable preservation of the fruit for a long time;
- absolute resistance of scab immunity;
- excellent resistance to other diseases and pests;
- attractive appearance;
- absolute sweetness and juiciness of the pulp;
- high yield and rapidity;
- very good frost resistance.
As we have seen, this variety is the absolute leader in all respects. It is very beneficial for landing for commercial purposes.
Disadvantagesexcept for those that are inherent in all columnar apple trees (close proximity of the root system, etc.), it is not observed.
There are no special features for pruning, watering, fertilizing the soil, preparing for winter or planting, which distinguish the variety "Currency" from other columnar apple trees. It is just perfect to grow on your site, and to bear fruit to your table.But, nevertheless, do not forget that these overseas beauties are very gentle and need the love of a gardener.