In nature, there are a number of plants, the beauty of which touches even the most callous person. These can be considered catalpa tree - unusual in appearance at any time of the year, attracting the eyes during flowering, surprising with large, marvelous beauty of leaves in the form of hearts and interesting shapes. If you want to surprise acquaintances and passers-by, feel free to plant one in your summer cottage. After all, to all the charms it is also unpretentious. On the needs of the plant catalpa for growing and care, read this article.
- The first acquaintance with catalpa
- Choosing a place to grow: lighting and soil requirements
- The process of planting young seedlings
- Growing and peculiarities of care
- Watering and feeding
- Weeding and loosening the soil
- Preparing for the winter
- Pests and diseases of catalpa: how to save a tree
- The combination and use of catalpa in landscape compositions
- Methods of reproduction of catalpa
The first acquaintance with catalpa
In order to get an idea of what this plant is, we describe its biological features. Catalpa (lat. Catalpa) - This is a small deciduous tree that grows on average up to 15 m in height and up to 1 m in width. The maximum size of the trunk reaches 45 m.
The crown of the catalpa is spherical, dense. Leaves - large, heart-shaped or ovate. Reach a length of 30 cm and a width of 17 cm. Grow on long petioles.
The fruit of the tree has the shape of a box in the form of a cylinder, up to 40 cm long, similar in appearance to the fruits, like that of a string bean. Inside it are oblate seeds in the amount of 53-146 pieces. Fruits can remain on the tree during the whole winter period.
Catalpa is interesting because in the fall its leaves do not turn yellow, they fall green at temperatures below 0 degrees. Also, the plant attracts attention by the fact that at the time when it blooms, all other trees have faded long ago.
In the wild, catalpa occurs in East Asia and North America. As an ornamental tree with large leaves and long pods it is grown in the southern regions of Russia, in Germany, Ukraine and other countries.
The tree is very hardy, and its wood does not succumb to rotting for a long time, while remaining soft and light. The plant can successfully grow both at low temperatures, for example, in the northern states of America, and in India, Australia and Africa. It is equally easy to survive in conditions of arid steppes and on sea coasts.
The plant is presented in the form of trees and shrubs. Catalpa belongs to the family Bignonievyh.The genus Catalp has 10 species. Among them, except deciduous, there are also evergreens. In Russia, the most common are five species: bignonevidnaya, beautiful (gorgeous), Bunge, ovoid, hybrid.
Choosing a place to grow: lighting and soil requirements
After such a detailed acquaintance with the pasta tree, let's talk about how to grow it.
Catalpa is a light-loving plant, therefore, when planting it should choose a well-lit areas. So that the tree does not lose its decorative effect, it is necessary to take care that the place where it grows is protected from drafts. Otherwise, winds can damage the leaves and destroy the flowers.
Catalpa is undemanding to soil - it grows well in any, but it still has some preferences - it likes organic-rich, light, non-acidic, fairly moist and well-drained soils. Does not tolerate close occurrence of groundwater.
The process of planting young seedlings
Catalpa does not require any special conditions for landing. It is advisable to dig a landing pit with a depth of 1-1.2 m and water it abundantly. Then fertilize in the form of wood ash (5-7 kg) and superphosphate. At the bottom of the pit is placed a soil mixture of the following composition:
- humus - three parts;
- leaf earth - two parts;
- sand - two parts;
- peat is one part.
If you plan to plant several trees, then between the seedlings should be observed intervals of 3 m. The best time for planting catalpa is early spring.
Growing and peculiarities of care
Catalpa refers to unpretentious plants. Its care is standard, it consists in watering, fertilizing with organic substances, weeding, sanitary pruning, protective measures against diseases and pests.
Watering and feeding
During the hot period, catalpa is recommended to be watered weekly, using two buckets of water for each tree. The rest of the time she will have two or three waterings per month.
It is necessary to feed the tree when planting. In the following years, two or three times during the growing season, slurry must be applied (diluted in water in the ratio of 1:10) - this is considered to be the best fertilizer for pasta. You can also fertilize the catalpa "Kemira Universal" (120 g / 1 m²). Before making the dressing is required abundant watering.
Weeding and loosening the soil
After each irrigation, it is advisable to loosen the soil in the bore circle, combining it with weeding from weeds. Soil loosening should be deep - 30-35 cm.
Pruning catalpa is done for sanitary purposes. Every spring must remove damaged, diseased and old branches. Also, a shaping hairstyle is applied to the tree to give the crown a beautiful and well-groomed appearance.
Preparing for the winter
Catalpa is no different good frost resistance. This is especially true of young trees. Therefore, they should be covered for the winter period. You can resort to wrapping trunks burlap or lapnik. In the near-stem circle, in order to avoid freezing of the roots, a thick layer of dry leaves is poured.After the termination of frosts, in the spring, the shelter is removed.
Pests and diseases of catalpa: how to save a tree
Catalpa is rarely affected by diseases and pests. Most often it can attack Spanish fly. To combat it, spray insecticides are used. If the insect is not destroyed, then the decorativeness of the plant can be significantly affected.
Also a tree is sometimes affected fungus Verticillus. To avoid this, it is necessary to follow the basic rules of agrotechnology - regularly water and loosen the soil in the tree trunks. If you start the disease, it can cause the tree to dry out and die.
The combination and use of catalpa in landscape compositions
More recently, just a decade ago, catalps grew only in botanical gardens.Today, this tree is increasingly used in their compositions by landscape designers, gardeners and city utilities, who actively plant with its help parks and avenues of megalopolises, have fallen in love with it, because catalps tolerate urban conditions well.
If we talk about planting in the city, the catalpa crown gives an excellent shade, so it is good to plant a tree near the shops in places of rest. It is also suitable for planting along highways, paths, near ponds.
Pasta tree looks great in a solitary planting, and in the group. In the southern regions, it is usually planted in the neighborhood of magnolia, oriental liquidambar, and holly. Oak, perennials, bulbous plants can also make a good company of catalpa. The combination of different types of catalpa in one place looks beautiful.
There are varieties, such as bignonemis Nana, which look great on the strain. This dwarf variety is the most preferred for summer residents, because it does not require a large area for planting.
Methods of reproduction of catalpa
Catalpa is easy to grow yourself, as it has several ways of breeding: seeds, cuttings, root suckers and grafting. The most commonly used are the first two methods.
Cutting should be carried out in the second half of summer. Cuttings are cut from healthy strong branches 10 cm long. It is desirable that they have lateral processes. For rooting, they are placed in a peat-sand mixture. Before the roots appear, they should be watered regularly. When a strong root system is formed and sprouts appear, cuttings can be transplanted into open ground.
For tree catalpa apply another method of reproduction - cuttings. Carry it out in early spring. Cuttings are cut with lateral processes and with apical bud. Then they are treated with a growth stimulator and placed in a greenhouse. Care for cuttings will be in their watering, airing and hardening. Well rooted plants are transplanted into the open ground the following spring.
Catalpa seed to grow easy. This should be done in February-March.Pre-seeds are placed in warm water and kept there for 7-12 hours, then shallowly placed in a container with the ground, which is placed in a place with diffused sunlight. From above they are covered with a thin layer of soil. Landings covered with film or glass.
Seedlings need to be watered regularly. If the temperature is at the level of + 15 ... +25 ° C, then the shoots will appear throughout the month. As soon as they seem, the film is opened. In open ground seedlings transplanted in May.
Seeds can be planted immediately in open ground. However, they will also need to be covered with foil. Care in this case will consist in regular watering and airing.
Pasta tree is gaining increasing popularity due to its beauty, unpretentiousness, resistance to diseases and parasites. Do not leave him alone and breeders, bringing new varieties and hybrids. Not so long ago an original variety was bred that has golden yellow leaves. How to plant a catalpa, after reading this article, you already know. Caring for it does not amount to great difficulties, and the aesthetic pleasure that a tree can deliver from spring to autumn is worth all the effort.