Description of species and breeds of pigeons with photos

Having informed five thousand years ago of people about the coming Flood, the legendary the white dove later became a symbol of peace and love. The huge pigeon family (more than 280 species) is extremely diverse. The species of these birds differ in their appearance and in the place they occupy in nature, and according to the functional purpose assigned to them.

  • Wild species
    • Dove or Sizar
    • Rocky
    • Klintuh
    • Ringdove
    • Crowned Pigeon
  • Meat pigeons
    • King
    • English Modena
  • Flying or racing pigeons
    • Nikolaev breed
    • Berlin short-eyed turman
    • German monk
  • Sports, or homing pigeons
    • Belgian Postal
    • English quarry
  • Decorative pigeons
    • Peacock
    • Barb
    • Brno blow
    • Bohemian kosmonogaya magic swallow
    • Saxon priest
    • Curly

Did you know? Muslims attribute the pigeon to the sacred birds, since the prophet Muhammad received water from the pigeon’s beak.

Wild species

It is believed that pigeons spread across the planet simultaneously with the resettlement of people. These birds quickly began to be used by man for their needs, turned into pets and still play a significant role in human society.But preserved in large numbers and breeds of wild pigeons, well feeling themselves without the tutelage of people. Their nests are located for the most part far from human dwellings - in the rocks, on steep shores, in forests and in other places. The nest usually represents a whole colony of pigeon pairs, each of which hatches 2-3 eggs.

Dove or Sizar

One of the most famous is the Russian variety of the wild pigeon called sizar (or just the gray pigeon), so named because of the appropriate color of feathers, against which stands a dark tail. It must be said that the bluish tinge has feathers in all other species of wild pigeons.

Sizar prefers highlands and cliffs to make a nest. Much less often in forests. Often can be seen in large cities. Lifestyle sedentary, but quite capable of long flights. Males have a slight advantage over females in the length of the wings (220 mm vs. 215 mm). The standard breeding period of these birds is from early spring to autumn, but individual pairs nest in winter. Reproduce quickly - up to 3-5 clutches per year from one ihpary.

Important! Sizari bring undoubted benefits to agriculture, clearing the fields of the remaining grains (primarily wheat).


Rocky dove looks like a sizar, but still differs from it in black beak, lighter tail and smaller size. Its name corresponds in this case to the habitat - rocky is found in the mountains of Altai, the Himalayas, Tibet and Tien Shan.


A typical forest inhabitant is Clintuch, which prefers thickets of beech or linden with hollow trees. There he makes a nest of dry twigs, hiding from any outside interference.

The geographical distribution of this breed covers a significant area from Africa and Turkey to Central Asia, Siberia and China. The pluntha plumage is a spectacular harmony of colors - the main bluish background turns into a cervical malachite sheen, dull gray of the wings and black stripes on the dark tail feathers.


Common wood pigeon is considered a European bird, but it lives in Asia Minor, the Middle East, and the Himalayan mountains. Northern European Common Wood Pigeon, in contrast to the sedentary representatives of this species living in other territories, is a migratory bird, moving in the winter to North Asia, Transcaucasia and Moldova.

His other name is vititen. Its size is one of the largest among wild forest pigeons (with a body length of up to 45 cm and a weight of up to 650 g, the wood pigeon has a 15-17 centimeter tail and a wingspan of over 70 cm, which clap loudly during takeoff).

Gray-gray plumage on the back acquires a brownish tinge, and reddish on the chest and neck. The pink beak and wax ends have yellow endings. Living in the forests, the pigeon can stay for a short time in Western European cities. Breakdown into couples, the construction of nests, laying and incubation (in turn) of eggs occurs after wintering. Chicks are fed by the so-called pigeon milk, which is formed in the goiter of an adult bird.

Important! Wood pigeon is so careful that it does not return to the nest, being accidentally driven away from there.

Crowned Pigeon

This beauty does not like the cold. Its habitat is a hot humid climate. Widely distributed in New Guinea. Lives settled in the jungle, preferring mangroves. The crown on the head of a bird, called a crown, consisting of feathers spread by a semitransparent fan, moves up and down following changes in the mood of its owner.

The wide and long tail is slightly rounded. Having long legs, its size corresponds to a small turkey weighing from 1.5 to 2 kg with a length of up to 0.7 m. The mating period is signaled by a male sounding sounds like drumming. In the nest of fern leaves, one large white egg is laid, which the parents hatch alternately for a month.

Important! The population is rapidly declining due to uncontrolled hunting.

Meat pigeons

The habit of treating pigeons as a means of postal communication, participants in sports or home decoration is somewhat at odds with the ancient tradition of using their meat as food. Meanwhile, exactly meat direction was the first in the selection of these birds. It has led to the emergence of modern meat breeds that can satisfy exquisite gastronomic requirements.


Even in the nineteenth century, the king appeared as a result of crossing postal birds with a Roman pigeon breed. Not only the four colors of feathers (white, brown, spotted and black) attract attention to this bird. Value has large amounts of meat on strong bones (the pigeon is unable to rise into the air because of its mass), which led to an extraordinary modern popularity in the United States of America and in other countries.

English Modena

The British were able to modernize the pigeons of the Italian Modena breed, creating, in fact, a new breed - the English Modena. Weight 0.7 - 0.9 kg makes it profitable use of individuals of this species in cooking. Externally, the English Modena resembles its American counterpart King, but, unlike him, has a vertically oriented tail and only two colors - with and forty and monophonic. Such a bird can fly, but cannot fly.

Flying or racing pigeons

Despite the fact that, according to the established tradition, pigeons are called pigeons, first of all, sports, to send letters use flight pigeons, perfectly oriented in space over any terrain and at ease returning to the place of permanent residence after an arbitrarily long flight. They are classified according to the features of their flight style. They distinguish, in particular, high-flying birds, which, having risen in circles "up to the sky",capable of long (up to 10 hours) to be there continuously, as well as of the pigeons, who accompany the take-off circles with air tumbling, turning over through the wing.

Somersaults through the tail, both vertically and horizontally, are capable of making battle pigeons snapping during the flight with their wings, but not climbing too great a height. Somersaults through the wing, which make scooters (another class of flying pigeons) during planning, create an unusual illusion of bird rotation around its axis, thus, as if emphasizing the special aesthetics of their flight technique.

Nikolaev breed

The Ukrainian city of shipbuilders Nikolaev became the site of the first successful breeding experiments, the result of which was the high-flying pigeon breed Nikolaev. Birds of this species able to climb to the sky straight up. Trembling long wings, they begin to engage already at high altitude. Short legs, a strong body, a small muscular neck allow the pigeon of the Nikolaev breed to feel confident during their stay in the air.

Berlin short-eyed turman

Fighting group of flying pigeons most widely represented by the Berlin short-tailed turman. The essentially prominent forehead contrasts slightly with the small body and, as the name implies, with a short beak. The color of the plumage is monotonous and variegated, and the drooping of the wings below the tail makes it easy to recognize the Berlin turman among its congeners.

German monk

Early in the breeding of domestic pigeons, Germany received a German monk breed in the 17th century.

The then golubyatnikov did not disdain theft from someone else's pigeon, for which they used the property of monks to lure to themselves other pigeons. German flies low. Most monks have a small feather hood on the back of their heads.

Sports, or homing pigeons

The stayer distance, easily overcome by the postal variety of pigeons, their participation in the actual competitions held gave grounds to call this breed also sports. Excellent orientation of sports pigeons in space, their ability to easily find their way back, regardless of the magnitude of the distance, is a hereditary feature.

Belgian Postal

Belgium became the capital of European politics much earlier turned into the world center of pigeon sport. No wonder, apparently, one of the best of all species of sports pigeon breeds is named after the Belgian postal.

The bird of this breed is the record for speed of air travel. This is due to the record prices for the Belgian pigeon.

Flight acceleration of the athlete-postman is achieved by combining a wide breast with a small tail and flowing smooth plumage, seeming silk.

Did you know? The speed of a pigeon flight can reach 65 km / h.

English quarry

With the help of the selection of Asian career managed to turn into English.

Due to the excellent speed qualities Representative English career became widely known. Asian origin is evident in the original skin folds located near the beak and the eyes of the bird.

They give it their spectacular decorative features.

Decorative pigeons

The feathered beauty fans succeeded in breeding decorative breeds of pigeons, characterized by unique body shapes, withers and feathers, unusual colors and posture.


Representatives of the peacock breed peacock breed are traditionally recognized the most aesthetically perfect among the decorative birds of this family. The name they deservedly got because of the wide tail with lush plumage. Colorful beauty (often white) attracts organizers of entertainment events, so these birds are often represented in circus arenas and other entertainment venues.


Among the decorative rocks, experts distinguish the so-called warty type, characterized, in particular, bordering the eyes of the bird skin outgrowths. A very prominent representative of this type is the barb, which also has a strongly prominent forehead and short beak. A rare and somewhat unexpected feature of the barb, which stand out from among all the pigeon relatives, is the lack of variegation in coloring. Individuals of white color are very popular, but there are also other tones.

Brno blow

Brno blow moves on the ground on tiptoes, if you use human terminology. When walking, only the fingers touch the surface, there is no support on the foot. This increases the effect of slender posture and upright walking.

Bohemian kosmonogaya magic swallow

The Czech region gave the name of one of the most original pigeon breeds, attracting curious and professional views. chessboard pattern of the wings, as well as legs, on which there is a plumage (most color pigeons do not have it).

The magic swallow is considered a representative of a group of large pigeons.

Saxon priest

The white forehead between two tufts distinguishes the Saxon priest among other decorative breeds of pigeons. The color of the other plumage may be different.

And another characteristic feature that adorns the look of the Saxon is elongated feathers on his paws.


It is a very unusual breed, whose representatives dream to attach gourmets-pigeon hunters to their collection, fed up with monotony or mottling of bird color. Unique curls effectively curl on the wings and legs curly pigeon.

The pigeon kingdom is able to charm anyone who touches it. It is important to strive for wildlife - it is not only in wild forests and mountains, but also in our everyday environment.